Various painting mediums are used to paint interior as well as exteriors of your house, office, etc. and spray painting is one of them. It is preferred by many as it provides much better results as compared to using a brush because it gives much smoother finish and takes less time. It is imperative to consider various factors if you want smoother finishing with spray paint. One of the critical factors that have a significant impact on the quality of finish is the pressure of spraying. It is vital that you have the right amount of weight through your paint sprayer gun to avoid uneven paint.
What is the Correct Pressure for Spraying?
|Paint Material Type||Fluid Tip Size & Pressure|
|.032″ .8 mm||.040″ 1.0 mm||.043″ 1.1 mm|
|Cup PSI (bar)||Air Cap PSI (bar)||Cup PSI (bar)||Air Cap PSI (bar)||Cup PSI (bar)||Air Cap PSI (bar)|
|Lacquer Primer Surfacer||5-6 (.34-.41)||3-4 (.2-.27)|
|2-Component Primer Surfacer||5-9 (.34-.61)||3-5 (.2-.41)|
|Primer Sealer||5-6 (.34-.41)||3-5 (.2-.34)||5-7 (.34-.48)||4-5 (.27-.34)|
|Epoxy||5-7 (.34-.48)||4-5 (.27-.34)|
|Acrylic Lacquer||4-5 (.27-.34)||3-4 (.2-.27)|
|Acrylic/Synthetic Enamels||5-8 (.34-.54)||6-8 (.41-.54)|
|Acrylic Urethane||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||5-6 (.34-.41)||5-6 (.34-.41)|
|Base Coat||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)|
|Polyurethane||5-6 (.34-.41)||5-6 (.34-.41)||5-6 (.34-.41)||5-7 (.34-.48)|
|Low V.O.C.||6-8 (.41-.54)||6-8 (.41-.54)||6-8 (.41-.54)||7-9 (.48-.61)|
|Waterborne||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||5-6 (.34-.41)|
|Acrylic Lacquer||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)|
|Acrylic Urethane||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||4-5 (.27-.34)||5-6 (.34-.41)|
|High Solids Urethane||6-8 (.41-.54)||6-9 (.41-.61)||6-8 (.41-.54)||7-9 (.48-.61)|
- Use the next slower solvent temperature in high volume paint booths and high temperatures if you want to get maximum flow-out without getting orange peel effect.
- Apply clear coats and acrylic enamels in two full wet coats as medium wet coats do not contain enough amount of material for optimum flow-out and may give you orange peel effect as well.
- Start with a smaller fluid tip size for best results. To increase the rate of paint flow and speed of production, increase cup pressure and use bigger tip size.
- As you increase the size of the tip used, atomizing air cap psi may also need to be increased accordingly. For best results, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations about the ratios for reduction and catalyzation. Use viscosity cup whenever required.
- Pressure calibration gauge is also useful for accurate air cap reading.
- When you are changing air caps, the air cap pressure may be disturbed so it may require readjustment for best results.
- While using the heavy-bodied material, you may need to use full open fan setting, full Also fluid knob adjustment and lowest air cap pressure which can provide you with optimum atomization.
- Separate cup pressure regulators are also available for increasing the rate of application with heavy-bodied materials. It can also pressurize the cup with ease.
The affection of Air Pressure in Painting
Painting using Air pressure paint sprayers ask for the right pressure for flawless finishing, and this can be achieved through the test above. Here, another factor is important; high pressure vs. low-pressure painting and their effects on the performance of your coating.
Air Pressure Spraying
If you want to use air pressure guns to spray paint to its full extent you should practice to get better at it . You have to be careful in setting the pressure of the sprayer just right. Remember to adjust the pressure you use with the right amount of pressure you can make a big difference in the quality.
Knowing the ideal pressure is the real art of getting smooth finishing using an air pressure spraying gun. Usually, spray-gun manufacturers provide the air pressure details along with their product, and this will help you to get the optimum pressure. All said you might still have to be careful while adjusting the dial to the instructed setting as the manufacturers may not have accounted for the stain or finish you are using to spray. There are other factors as well, like how much thinner you have added, length of your hose and temperature variations, etc.
To adjust the pressure at the air cap, you will need an air gauge that can be attached to these places. A unique cap with a gauge connected is required to measure the maximum needed pressure, and that will cost you extra bucks. However, you do not need such kind of expenditure and neither do you need any suggested setting by the manufacturers. All you need a regulator and a simple test to get the optimum setting.
The best way of adjusting to an ideal setting, start by setting every control on the gun to the maximum level and then turning the regulator down to the level well below the level it should be. Now test spray on a piece of cardboard or brown paper. This will give you a linear pattern with relatively large dots around the edges. Continue increasing the pressure by 5 or 10 psi and test spray on the cardboard until you get your desired spray pressure ideal to serve your need.
It is imperative that the whole time, you are holding the gun at the same distance from the cardboard. Best way to do this is by placing the tip of your finger against the target while the tip of your thumb against the air cap of the sprayer. This distance is the one best to achieve your perfect finish, that is, 8 inches.
Once you reach the point where the pattern does not widen then the previous model and does not get smaller dots, you have reached the optimum level of pressure. From this setting, reduce a little too extreme environment or a bit further.
An important thing to note here is that the pressure should be changed if you change the material or the weather conditions change. Another thing to remember is turbine-air supplied guns have different values so you should change the way you use it to match its properties.
High Volume Low Pressure or HVLP as popularly known is the trending technique of spray painting of our time. HVLP works with the help of two things, air, and the solvent. The solvent is the primer/sealer/paint/clear provided by the manufacturer or recommended to add to the paint. The thinner the PSPC or more air you offer at the fluid tip of the sprayer, the more you will get the PSPC broken down. You need perfect balance. Solvent and air should be in an ideal amount to provide you with excellent finishing.
In this process, the first thing to look at is your compressor and air supply. HVLP gun main feed is a high volume of air to function. High Volume here refers to the high concentration of air needed to operate the gun which is around 50 lbs. At the gun. Low Pressure relates to the actual air cap where the air and paint come out. The lid of HVLP features only 10 pounds. The real key to the functioning of HVLP guns is the volume of air CFM- Cubic Feet per Minute that comes out that provides proper atomization.
For an HVLP gun, you need the smallest fluid tip that will still let you PSPC the required area and keep that particular area wet for long enough to get adjacent areas painted with the same thickness of the coating. If you use 1.0 tip, it will not be optimum for completing the whole job in time but will be good enough to end one fender. It will slow down the progress way too much, and by the time you finish a single panel, it will also be flashed. Therefore, a compromise here is recommended with the tip 1.3 should be used; even 1.5 can get the job done. Most of the tech sheets provided with the product feature suggestions for the optimum fluid tip size.
For various materials, you may need yet different sizes of tips. As, for using polyester primer, a big tip sized 2.3 may work. On the other hand, for urethanes and epoxies, the 1.3 or 1.4 will work fine.
Air Cap CFM Rating and Spray Pattern
|Air Cap Type||Part Number||Material Type||3 PSI(.2 bar)||5 PSI(.3 bar)||Gun Distance||Approximate Fan Size|
|GuideRing™ w/Black Ring w/Gold Ring||7042
|Full Range||11 CFM 306 L/min||15 CFM 417 L/min||6″ – 8″ 15-20 cm||12″ – 14″ 30-36 cm|
|AIR-MISER™ w/Blue Ring||7002||Base & Clear Coat Low to Med. Solids||9 CFM 250 L/min||12 CFM 333 L/min||8″ – 10″ 20-25 cm||8″ – 10″ 20-25 cm|
|HO™ High Output w/Red Ring||7008||Primer & Sealer Med. to High Solids||12 CFM 333 L/min||16 CFM 444 L/min||6″ – 8″ 15-20 cm||9″ – 11″ 23-28 cm|
|Primer w/Green Ring||7045||Primer, Primer Surfacer||11 CFM 306 L/min||15 CFM 417 L/min||6″ – 8″ 15-20 cm||12″ – 14″ 30-36 cm A|
Here are some popular brands of HVLP guns available in the market and this chart features the recommended settings for various materials that you use for spray painting. They may be adjusted to your liking, which can be decided by running the test before doing the actual painting project. For best atomization, use smaller sized tips at first. Increase the cup pressure or fluid tip size in case you want the job done at a faster rate. It should be noted, however, that with an increase in the size of the fluid tip, atomizing air cap psi might need to be increased accordingly. It is best to follow the manufacturers’ recommendations in the use of tips and adjusting for the right pressure settings according to the material used.
Prevent Overspray When Spray Painting
Required Air Inlet
|Desired Air Cap PSI (bar)||Required Air Inlet PSI (bar)|
|Round Air Cap||AIR-MISER™ Air Cap||High Output Air Cap||GuideRing™ Air Cap||65 Offset Air Cap|
|2 PSI (.14)||7 (.5)||18 (1.2)||25 (1.7)||32 (2.2)||18 (1.2)|
|3 PSI (.2)||11 (.8)||25 (1.7)||32 (2.2)||39 (2.6)||25 (1.7)|
|4 PSI (.27)||14 (1.0)||30 (2.0)||40 (2.7)||47 (3.2)||30 (2.0)|
|5 PSI (.34)||16 (1.1)||36 (2.4)||47 (3.2)||55 (3.7)||36 (2.4)|
|6 PSI (.41)||19 (1.3)||40 (2.7)||56 (3.8)||63 (4.3)||40 (2.7)|
|7 PSI (.48)||21 (1.4)||45 (3.1)||62 (4.2)||70 (4.8)||45 (3.1)|
|8 PSI (.54)||24 (1.6)||50 (3.4)||68 (4.6)||77 (5.2)||50 (3.4)|
|9 PSI (.61)||26 (1.8)||54 (3.7)||75 (5.1)||83 (5.6)||54 (3.7)|
|10 PSI (.7)||28 (1.9)||58 (3.9)||80 (5.4)||80 (5.4)||58 (3.9)|
This chart has the necessary pressure requirements mapped out for you that will guide you about how to use the regulator to get required adjustment on the dial. These conversions provided are for all the Atom-miser® air cap types.
These results shared here are obtained using Mattson 5050 Filter Regulator, 2 Milton Quick Connect Couplers and 30 feet of 3/8″ ID B.F. Goodrich hose.
DIYers are always on the lookout for best HVLP sprayer guns to cater to their hobby as well as provide them with best results. Therefore, if they have a small setup producing 1.5 – 2.0 horsepower air tank, they are good to go. The only glitch they might face is condensation. Make sure you have at least two water filters; one 10-15 feet from your tank and the other one at your gun neck to keep the water out of your lines.
In case of a smaller compressor, you most probably be using a 110 V outlet and the max HP a 110 can put out safely without it kicking off your breakers is 2 HP.
Air Compressors for the HardCoreDIYers, a 50-100 gallon air compressor size having the capacity for 189-378 liter with the horsepower rating of 4-6 HP give sufficient ability to fulfill their needs. This will be using a 240 VAC wiring system of course, and one should be prepared to arrange for such power needs as it takes as much power as does a home dryer or central AC system.
Pressure is setting fares high in perfect finish using both small and large industrial compressors as they are most fundamental and vital setting. Small compressors come with a pressure switch while for the large industrial compressors, they have central compressor controller. It is highly recommended that the pressure setting should be as low as possible for best results.
A compressor always comes with two pressure set points: the cut-in and the cutout set point. They are the points at which the compressor starts and stops. At cut out pressure, the compressor will stay and will start again once the pressure drops to the cut-in pressure level. This implies that cut-in is lower than the cut-out pressure. The difference between both is called pressure band or pressure differential.
A pressure differential of at least 1bar or 14 psi is standard. If the difference between both is too small, the compressor will repeatedly start and stops quickly which will take a toll on the motor of the compressor and may damage the pressure switch. It is best to keep the cut-in pressure at 6.1 bar at the minimum, which means the cut-out pressure will be 7.1 bar. Keeping the bar high is recommended practice for the optimum performance of the compressor.
Tips for Setting Correct Pressure Settings
When you are using a sprayer gun that applies pressure, a compressor that is for operating, you know that there are various settings for the strength that you can use. The right amount of pressure setting is going to get perfect results you are looking for.
So how you can determine the ideal pressure depends upon various factors. Some spray-guns come with the perfect pressure usage chart with the product itself, and that can help you in setting your gun on the right dial. Too little pressure or too high can ruin your wall, as well as your mood.
There are various factors as well that may be overlooked while preparing these charts. They may include the actual stain or how much thinner the paint is, the length of the hose you are using an outside temperature variation. You do not need any gauges to measure these variations as you can figure out ideal air pressure for your gun and the finishing through just a regulator and the test aforementioned in the article. It will not only give you a reasonably good idea of how and what is to be done to get perfect finishing but also gets to save lots of material.
Following the procedure is essential here.
- Start the compressor and let it run until the pressure built up to cut-out level.
- Slowly let some air escape for the open drain. Note down the pressure level.
- Adjust the cut-in pressure you just jotted down, with a big sheet screw. Turn it clockwise to increase the cut-in pressure.
- Close the drain valve, and the compressor will only run until it reaches the cut-out pressure.
The process is repeated until you reach the right pressure.
Similarly, the cut-out procedure is almost the same as a cut-in process.
- Note down the cut-in pressure at which machine stopped when you last time operated it.
- Differential pressure should be adjusted accordingly. Clockwise to increase and count-clockwise is used to decrease the maximum pressure settings.
- Open the drain valve and wait until the pressure level drops down, until its low enough to start the compressor.
Also, in case you still are facing problems in setting the right pressure in your paint sprayer gun, here is a link that can provide you with the best answers to your queries.
Correct pressure spraying techniques need mastering, and they can be achieved through experience more than reading the manual. It is not rocket science either and can be learned by anyone who is interested in using sprayer guns for his or her painting projects. A few tips and tricks can be determined to produce optimum results. Make sure you have assembled the gun correctly, and the paints you are using are in compliance with the pressure gun. Otherwise, you cannot ensure smooth finishing at the end. Right kind of viscosity of the material is also a necessity that cannot be overlooked. These few tips and tricks may help you a long way, especially if you are a DIYer.
I am a licensed architect who is passionate about all things home improvement industries, I have been doing DIY painting projects and have developed lots of experience around home improvement over the 10 years.